The 5 Most Incredible Objects in Space Still Now
Sagittarius B2 – 5
Sagittarius B2 is a giant molecular cloud of gas and dust that is located about 120 parsecs (390) from the center of the Milky Way. This complex is the largest molecular cloud in the vicinity of the core and one of the largest in the galaxy, spanning the mass of the Sun. The mean hydrogen density within the cloud is 3000 atoms per cm3, which is about 20–40 times denser than a typical molecular cloud.
The internal structure of this cloud is complex, with varying densities and temperatures. The cloud is divided into three main cores, designated north middle or main and south respectively. Thus Sgr B2 represents the north core. The sites Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2are sites of prolific star formation. The first 10 regions discovered were designated A through J. H II regions A-G, I and J lie within Sgr B2, while region K is in Sgr B2and region H is in Sgr B2.The 5-parsec-wide core of the cloud is a star-forming region that is emitting about 10 million times the luminosity of the Sun.
The cloud is composed of various kinds of complex molecules, of particular interest: alcohol. The cloud contains ethanol, vinyl alcohol, and methanol. This is due to the conglomeration of atoms resulting in new molecules. The composition was discovered via spectrograph in an attempt to discover amino acids. An ester, ethyl formate, was also discovered, which is a major precursor to amino acids.
Temperatures in the cloud vary from 300 K(27 °C) in dense star-forming regions to 40 K (−233.2 °C) in the surrounding envelope. Because the average temperature and pressure in Sgr B2 are low, chemistry based on the direct interaction of atoms is exceedingly slow. However, the Sgr B2 complex contains cold dust grains consisting of a silicon core surrounded by a mantle of water ice and various carbon compounds. The surfaces of these grains allow chemical reactions to occur by accreting molecules that can then interact with neighboring compounds. The resulting compounds can then evaporate from the surface and join the molecular cloud.
Pulsars – 4
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can be observed only when the beam of emission is pointing toward Earth (much like the way a lighthouse can be seen only when the light is pointed in the direction of an observer), and is responsible for the pulsed appearance of emission. Neutron stars are very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods. This produces a very precise interval between pulses that ranges from milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar. Pulsars are believed to be one of the candidates for the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (see also centrifugal mechanism of acceleration).
The periods of pulsars make them very useful tools. Observations of a pulsar in a binary neutron star system were used to indirectly confirm the existence of gravitational radiation. The first extrasolar planets were discovered around a pulsar, PSR B1257+12. Certain types of pulsars rival atomic clocks in their accuracy in keeping time.
Magnetars – 3
A magnetar is a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field even more powerful than pulsars magnetic field .
The magnetic field decay powers the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays. The
theory regarding these objects was proposed by Robert Duncan and Christopher Thompsonin 1992, but the first recorded burst of gamma rays thought to have been from a magnetar had been detected on March 5, 1979. During the following decade, the magnetar hypothesis became widely accepted as a likely explanation for soft gamma repeaters(SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs)
Their surface can reach temperature up to 18 million degrees.
if you were to drop a dice 1 meter over the surface of a magnetars it would hit it in less that a microsecond at around 7.000.000 km/h with an impact of 1.000 nuclear bombs.
The Universe Largest Electrical Current – 2
A cosmic jet 2 billion light years away is carrying the highest electric current ever seen: 1018 amps, equivalent to a trillion bolts of lightning.
Philipp Kronberg of the University of Toronto in Canada and colleagues measured the alignment of radio waves around a galaxy called 3C303, which has a giant jet of matter shooting from its core. They saw a sudden change in the waves’ alignment coinciding with the jet. “This is an unambiguous signature of a current,” says Kronberg.
The team thinks magnetic fields from a colossal black hole at the galaxy’s core are generating the current, which is powerful enough to light up the jet and drive it through interstellar gases out to a distance of about 150,000 light years .
The Huge – LQG (LARGEST QUASAR GROUP) – 1
The Huge Large Quasar Group, (Huge-LQG, also called U1.27) is a possible structure or pseudo-structure of 73 quasars, referred to as a large quasar group, that measures about 4 billion light-years across. At its discovery, it was identified as the largest and the most massive known structure in the observable universe, though it has been superseded by the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall at 10 billion light-years. There are also issues about its structure.
The Huge-LQG was estimated to be about 1.24 Gpc in length, by 640 Mpc and 370 Mpc on the other dimensions, and contains 73 quasars, respectively. Quasars are very luminous active galactic nuclei, thought to be supermassive black holes feeding on matter.
Since they are only found in dense regions of the universe, quasars can be used to find overdensities of matter within the universe. It has the approximate binding mass of 6.1×1018 (6.1 trillion (long scale) or 6.1 quintillion (short scale)) . The Huge-LQG was initially named U1.27 due to its average redshift of 1.27 (where the “U” refers to a connected unit of quasars)placing its distance at about 9 billion light-years from Earth